Comparative Studies and Papers

Tested extensively in the field and in labs by independent  parties against gold standard testing methods that detect E. coli, the Compartment Bag Test (CBT) gives results comparable with more complicated, expensive and less portable tests. Studies have been done in a variety of locations and environments around the world by academic institutions, national government agencies, international NGOs and United Nations agencies.

Our customers have used hundreds of thousands of CBTs in the field with successful results.

Articles

Testing: Simple & Reliable
Water Quality Products Magazine→

Monitoring for Progress
Water Quality Products Magazine→

CBT E. coli Kit Compared to Membrane Filtration Method

Household Microbial Water Quality Testing in a Peruvian Demographic and Health Survey: Evaluation of the Compartment Bag Test for Escherichia coli
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene →

Evaluation of the Compartment Bag Test for the Detection of Escherichia coli in Water
Journal of Microbiological Methods→

CBT E. coli Kit Compared to IDEXX Colilert

Evaluating Human Sensory Perceptions and the Compartment Bag Test Assays as Proxies for the Presence and Concentration of Escherichia coli in Drinking Water in Western Kenya
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene →

Evaluation of Microbial Water Quality Tests for Humanitarian Emergency and Development Settings
Procedia Engineering→

Statistical Theory of Aquagenx Compartment Bag and MPN Table

The compartment bag test (CBT) for enumerating fecal indicator bacteria: Basis for design and interpretation of results
Science for the Total Environment​→

Other Papers and Surveys

Multiple water source use in rural Vanuatu: are households choosing the safest option for drinking?
International Journal of Environmental Health Research →

Factors associated with post-treatment E. coli contamination in households practising water treatment: a study of rural Cambodia
International Journal of Environmental Health Research →

Tryptophan-like fluorescence as a measure of microbial contamination risk in groundwater
Science of The Total Environment→

Rapid Detection of Escherichia coli in Water Using Sample Concentration and Optimized Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Chromogenic Substrates
Current Microbiology→

Performance Evaluation of Gravity-Fed Water Treatment Systems in Rural Honduras: Verifying Robust Reduction of Turbidity and Escherichia coli during Wet and Dry Weather
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene→

Evaluation of use, acceptability, and effectiveness of household water filter systems in Honduras, 2016–2017
Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development→

Evaluation of the effectiveness of a latrine intervention in the reduction of childhood diarrhoeal health in Nyando District, Kisumu County, Kenya
Cambridge University Press→

A novel household water insecurity scale: Procedures and psychometric analysis among postpartum women in western Kenya
PLOS One→

Innovations in WASH Impact Measures: Water and Sanitation Measurement Technologies and Practices to Inform the Sustainable Development Goals
World Bank Group→

WASH Poor in a Water-Rich Country: A Diagnostic of Water, Sanitation, Hygiene, and Poverty in the Democratic Republic of Congo
World Bank Group→

Measuring the impact of multiple-use water services in Tanzania and Burkina Faso: water service quality, nutrition, and health
Rural Water Supply Network→

Perceptions and determinants of households’ participation in a randomized evaluation on water quality testing and information in Southern Ghana
IWA Water Policy Journal→

Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene in Rural Health-Care Facilities: A Cross-Sectional Study in Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Rwanda, Uganda, and Zambia
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene →

The Sustainable Development Goals for Water: The Need to Consider Perception, Preference, and Safety
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene →

The Impacts of Household Water Quality Testing and Information on Safe Water Behaviors: Evidence from a Randomized Experiment in Ghana
University of Bonn  Center for Development Research→

Baseline Assessment of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WaSH)vInfrastructure and Practices in Government Schools of the
Trapeang Chour Commune, Cambodia
Journal of Environment and Health Sciences→

Behavioural determinants associated with E. coli contamination post-treatment in households that practise water treatment in rural Cambodia
Waterlines→

Microbial source tracking in shellfish harvesting waters in the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica
IWA Water Research →

Looking beyond headline indicators: water and sanitation services in small towns in Ethiopia
I
WA Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development→

Semi-quantitative estimation of Escherichia coli levels in public drinking water sources in northern Haiti
IWA Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development→

The challenge of improving boiling: lessons learned from a randomized controlled trial of water pasteurization and safe storage in Peru
Epidemiology & Infection→

Well water quality in rural Nicaragua using a low-cost bacterial test and microbial source tracking
IWA Journal of Water and Health→

Microbial Quality of Improved Drinking Water Sources: Evidence from Western Kenya and Southern Vietnam
IWA Journal of Water and Health→

“Improved” But Not Necessarily Safe: An Assessment of Fecal Contamination of Household Drinking Water in Rural Peru
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene→

Microbial Quality of Improved Drinking Water Sources: Evidence from Western Kenya and Southern Vietnam
IWA Journal of Water and Health→

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Performance Evaluation of the Compartment Bag Test for E. coli in Drinking Water
Dissertation for PhD in Environmental Sciences and Engineering→

An Evaluation of a World Vision Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) Project in Tanna, Vanuatu
Thesis for Masters of Science in Public Health

Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Latrine Intervention on Childhood Diarrheal Health in Nyando District
Thesis for Masters of Science in Public Health Sciences→

Poster Presentations

Performance of Intermittently Operated Slow Sand Filters in Rural Schools in Cambodia
Poster Presentation, Samaritan’s Purse-Clear Cambodia-Universite Laval→

Evaluation of household microbial water quality testing in a Pilot Peruvian Demographic and Health Survey using the portable Compartment Bag Test (CBT) for E. coli
Poster Presentation, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill-MEASURE DHS-ICF Macro-Georgia State University→

Field Evaluation of a Low-cost Compartmentalized Bag MPN Method for the Detection and Quantification of E. coli in Stored Household Rainwater Samples Collected in Northeastern Thailand
Poster Presentation, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill→

Microbial Quality and Safety of Well Water in Rural Nicaragua as Determined by Low Cost Bacterial Test
Poster Presentation, Michigan State University→

The Impacts of Household Water Quality Testing and Information on Safe Water Behaviors: Evidence from Randomized Experiment in Ghana
Presentation at CSAE Conference ( Centre for the Study of African Economies) 2016→

Comparison of Testing Methods for E. coli

 Presence/AbsenceMultiple TubePlate and Film MethodsMembrane FiltrationAQUAGENX CBT KIT
Requirements/Capabilities
Electricity (see footnote 1)YesYesYesYesNo
Controlled Incubation (see footnote 1)YesYesYesYesNo
Ambient Temperature Incubation (see footnote 2)MaybeMaybeNoMaybeYes. 25 degrees Celsius and above.
UV LightMaybe; variesMaybe; variesMaybe; variesMaybe; varies (see footnote 3)No
Extra and/or Bulky Equipment and Other MaterialsYesYesYesYesNo
Cold StorageNoMaybeMaybeMaybe (see footnote 4)No
Quantified Test ResultsNoYesYesYesYes
Trained TechniciansNoYesYesYesNo
Compact, Easy Transport in FieldNoNoNoNoYes
Sterilize Reusable PartsNoYesYesYesNo
Decontamination IncludedNoNoNoNoCBT E. coli Kit 10-Pack includes chlorine tablets for sample disinfection.

(1) Most tests specify incubation at a specific temperature, which requires use of an incubator powered by electricity; some tests have heat-sensitive bacteriological media which requires temperature control, often refrigeration, for storage.

(2) Most tests recommend specific temperatures for incubation, such as 35-37° Celsius or 44.5° Celsius. Use of ambient temperatures is not recommended and many tests have not been validated for performance at ambient temperature.

(3) Many tests rely on detecting E. coli growth by the blue fluorescence produced by the hydrolysis product of a specific fluorogenic Beta-D-glucoronide substrate.

(4) Many tests come with prepared culture media that must be stored cold or else they will degrade. Those tests that do not usually require that the dehydrated bacteria culture medium provided be reconstituted in reagent water and either boiled or steam sterilized (autoclaved) for use.